My Vision of Leadership

In the course of writing this blog, I have learned that leadership consists of influencing people through communication and developing performance with operational experience. The success of a leader depends on his or her ability to perform these actions in conjunction with role modelling a positive, consistent and ethical leadership style (Hsieh and Drucker 1988). My interpretation is that leadership should be viewed in the form of a growth spectrum, where any given leader, at any given point in time and in relation to a specific action, falls somewhere on the continuum between ethical, innovative and transformational leadership, and unethical, autocratic and purely transactional leadership. The effective leader, in my view, is constantly evolving towards becoming more ethical, innovative and transformational.

My perspective is influenced by Lynda Gratton, former Human Resource Director at PA Consulting and professor at London Business School (London Business School 2013), whose research on the future of work details areas that will impact organisations in the future, including high performing virtual teams, transparent and authentic leadership, and business relationships and networking (Gratton 2010). Transparent and authentic leadership is especially important as it enables ethical, innovative and transformational leadership, thereby moving an organisation towards a position of progressive modernity (Gratton 2010).

Additionally, the experience of team work and team leadership during my undergraduate and postgraduate degrees has shown me the communication skills and coordination activities necessary to leaders. The need for consistency and role modelling is seen in teamwork and team leadership. Team leaders or members, ideally, share vision, mission and strategy to achieve set goals that are agreed upon by the entire group (Hsieh and Drucker 1988; Van Knippenberg and Hogg 2003). However, gaining a unanimous team agreement is rare and compromises are often made by those who are unable or unwilling to communicate their ideas effectively. The team leader is also a team member and this makes communication an essential leadership skill (Van Knippenberg and Hogg 2003). In my experience as a team leader and member, communicating vision and goal setting, as well as coordination and organisational skills, are necessary to ensure success.

From my teamwork experiences and from my research for the preceding four blog posts, I have found that my own leadership style has evolved from transactional and task-oriented, to collaborative and democratic leadership. I am more focused on team involvement and have attempted to maintain an authenticity in my interpersonal and motivational skills. In this way, I believe that I lead by example and that my ethical standpoint is made explicit in my actions. From Lynda Gratton and other female leaders, such as Sheryl Sandberg, the COO of Facebook mentioned in the blog post on innovation leaders, I have found sources of inspiration regarding the capabilities of women in male-dominated workplaces, as well as leadership qualities and skills in general. As role models, they have allowed me to identify areas I must develop in order to succeed in a future career in the HR consulting industry.

I found that the need for knowledge sharing, especially in teamwork situations, is linked to the importance of developing effective leadership communication skills (De Vries, et al. 2010). By developing my communication skills, I will be better able to lead teams effectively and coordinate the shared knowledge to achieve positive results. Additionally, by developing better communication skills, especially in regards to communicating vision, I will be able to evolve my leadership style to be more transformational (Pieterse, et al. 2010) and become more adept at team leadership, an important skill in the HR consulting industry. Thus, the most important factor in my research of leaders and leadership is that personal development and growth is essential, and that those leaders who deny their development needs are met with the threat of failure and obsolescence.

 

 

References

De Vries, R., Bakker-Pieper, A. and Oostenveld, W. (2010), ‘Leadership = Communication? The Relations of Leaders’ Communication Styles with Leadership Styles, Knowledge Sharing and Leadership Outcomes’, Journal Of Business & Psychology, 25(3), 367-380, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 March 2013.

Gratton, L. (2010), ‘Lynda Gratton Investigates: The Future of Work’, Business Strategy Review, 21(3), 16-23, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 March 2013.

Hsieh, T. and Drucker, P. (1988), ‘Leadership: more doing than dash’, McKinsey Quarterly, 1988, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 March 2013.

London Business School (2013) Lynda Gratton, faculty profile at London Business School [online] available from <http://www.london.edu/facultyandresearch/faculty/search.do?uid=lgratton> [27 March 2013]

Pieterse, A., Van Knippenberg, D., Schippers, M. and Stam, D. (2010), ‘Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behavior: The moderating role of psychological empowerment’, Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 31(4), 609-623, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 28 March 2013.

Van Knippenberg, D. and Hogg, M.A. (2003), ‘A social identity model of leadership effectiveness in organizations.’ In Research in organizational behavior: An annual series of analytical essays and critical reviews, 25, 243-295. Oxford England: Elsevier Science Ltd, 2003. PsycINFO, EBSCOhost (accessed March 27, 2013).

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Ethical Leadership

Introduction

An effective, influential and ethical leader is ‘an attractive, credible and legitimate role model who engages in normatively appropriate behaviour and makes the ethics message salient’ (Brown, et al. 2005: 130). Arguments for and against the statement that ethical leadership behaviour always has ‘positive effects on both individual and organizational effectiveness’ (Rubin, et al. 2010: 216-217) will be debated in the context of the Human Resource (“HR”) consulting industry. Although ethical leader behaviour is generally rewarded in some way, sometimes it may result in the leader being penalised for pushing normative boundaries.

The article from which the statement originates explains that the term ‘normatively appropriate conduct’, positive behaviour that followers believe leaders should espouse and enact, was used intentionally, to account for variations in ethics due to differing contexts and cultures (Brown, et al 2005: 120). Measuring such behaviour non-financially may utilise qualitative research methods, such as the Ethical Leadership Survey, the Perceived Leadership Integrity Scale or the Ethical Leadership Work Questionnaire (Yukl, et al. 2013). Financial methods may include costs incurred due to unethical behaviour or activities (Yukl, et al. 2013). Positive effects of ethical behaviour tend to be more difficult to quantify than the negative effects of ethical or unethical behaviour.

Arguments For

The statement is valid as ethical leadership behaviour and activities is generally a positive influence on overall organisational and individual behaviour and activities. Through role modelling and effective communication of ethics, leaders may instil a culture of ethical behaviour that is transmitted throughout the organisation (Rubin, et al. 2010). This is mirrored in the HR consulting industry, where ethical leadership is largely defined by individual leaders and should be constantly emphasised and embedded into the organisational culture (O’Mahoney 2011; Thomas et al. 2004). In the HR consulting industry, the most common form positive effects of ethical leadership is seen in is corporate social responsibility and corporate governance, which impacts all stakeholders. For example, PA Consulting is particularly intent on preventing bribery and details procedures to do so in its Code of Conduct, which is reviewed periodically (PA Consulting 2013). This ensures that a certain standard of ethical behaviour is adhered to throughout the company. However, compliance structures and systems are not effective if leadership does not follow them. An ethical leader is required to not only communicate ‘normatively appropriate conduct’, but consistently enact it as well.

Arguments Against

The other perspective of the statement is the view that ethical leadership behaviour may have negative effects on individual and organisational performance, and that unethical behaviour may have positive effects (Yukl, et al. 2013: 41). The issue of whistleblowing backlash is one negative effect of ethical leadership, where reporting or challenging unethical practices or structures result in being penalised or terminated (Yukl, et al. 2013: 41-42). Alternatively, unethical behaviour, such as fraud or bribery, may be rewarded in the short-term, especially if the organisational culture is tacitly accepts the practices (Thomas, et al. 2004; Yukl, et al. 2013). In the HR consulting industry, examples of such an incident is the involvement of some of McKinsey & Company’s top management in the Raj Rajaratnam insider trading scandal in 2011 (Hill 2011) or Monitor Group’s bankruptcy after being found to have done business with the Gaddafi regime in Libya (McCarty and Pettersson 2012). Additionally, the HR consulting industry is defined by interdependent and interconnected relationships between clients, the company and consultants, and this may result in conflicts of interest that impede the progress of ethical leadership, increasing the possibility of unintended ethical breaches (Donnelly 2011). It is, therefore, necessary for individuals and organisations to self-regulate behaviour and activities to avoid the inevitable negative effects of unethical leadership behaviour.

Conclusion

Ultimately, individual leaders should make the choice to practice ethical behaviour, including enacting qualities such as approachability, trustworthiness and humility (Zenger 2012), while following and role modelling the company Code of Conduct. An ethical leader will enhance the positive effects of such behaviour to translate into performance and profit.

References

Brown, M., Treviño, L., & Harrison, D. (2005), ‘Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing’, Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes, 97(2), 117-134, PsycINFO, EBSCOhost, viewed 22 March 2013.

Donnelly, R. (2011), ‘The coalescence between synergies and conflicts of interest in a top consultancy firm: an analysis of the implications for consultants’ attitudes and behaviours’, Human Resource Management Journal, 21(1), 60-73, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 22 March 2013.

Hill, A. (2011) ‘Inside McKinsey’. The Financial Times [online] 25 November. available from <http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/0d506e0e-1583-11e1-b9b8-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2OHV17nHq> [22 March 2013]

McCarty, D. and Pettersson, E. (2012) ‘Monitor Company Group LP files for Bankruptcy in Delaware’. Bloomberg News [online] 8 November. available from <http://www.businessweek.com/news/2012-11-07/monitor-company-group-lp-files-for-bankruptcy-in-delaware> [22 March 2013]

O’Mahoney, J. (2011), ‘Advisory Anxieties: Ethical Individualisation in the UK Consulting Industry’, Journal Of Business Ethics, 104(1), 101-113, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 22 March 2013.

PA Consulting (2013) Corporate Responsibility – PA Consulting Group [online] <http://www.paconsulting.com/about-us/preventing-bribery/> [22 March 2013]

Rubin, R., Dierdorff, E., and Brown, M. (2010), ‘Do Ethical Leaders Get Ahead? Exploring Ethical Leadership and Promotability’, Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(2), 215-236, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 March 2013.

Thomas, T., Schermerhorn Jr., J., and Dienhart, J. (2004), ‘Strategic leadership of ethical behavior in business’, Academy Of Management Executive, 18(2), 56-66, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 22 March 2013.

Yukl, G., Mahsud, R., Hassan, S., and Prussia, G. (2013), ‘An Improved Measure of Ethical Leadership’, Journal Of Leadership & Organizational Studies (Sage Publications Inc.), 20(1), 38-48, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 22 March 2013.

Zenger, J. (2012) ‘Ethics in leadership: The 8 rules to prevent misuse of corporate power’, Forbes.com [online] 20 June. available from <http://www.forbes.com/sites/jackzenger/2012/06/20/ethics-in-leadership-the-8-rules-to-protect-corporate-power/> [22 March 2013]

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Analysis of Innovation Leaders in Global Business

Innovation leaders create and communicate ideas, vision and strategy, influence strategy and consequently shape organisational structure and culture (Bel 2010). They are required to be both generalists and specialists in any given field of knowledge, and should encourage leadership and innovation to become ‘dispersed’ across the entire organisations (Bel 2010: 58-59). Two leaders, former PA Consulting Human Resource (“HR”) Director and professor at London Business School, Lynda Gratton (“Gratton”), and Facebook’s Chief Operating Officer (“COO”), Sheryl Sandberg (“Sandberg”), demonstrate that the link between innovative behaviour and activities, and leadership may be interpreted in a variety of ways, but that successful performance of one, often leads to the other.

 

Lynda Gratton

As a leader in the HR consulting industry and in HR academics, Gratton has stated her views on the future of work (Gratton 2010). Most relevant to innovation leadership is her research on 5 areas that are most important to the changes organisations will face in the future; transparent and authentic leadership, high performing virtual teams, cross cultural business networks and relationships, relationships with partners, consumers and entrepreneurs, and flexible working (Gratton 2010). Innovation leadership is affected by all these factors and in conducting and promoting such research, Gratton has become an innovation leader in her own right. From a gender perspective, a successful female leader, in what has traditionally been a male-dominated industry, is innovation leadership in itself, as the shift in perceptions regarding female leaders will encourage the workforce to embrace new ideas and changes from the norm, thus influencing innovation (The Financial Times 2013). However, in the HR consulting industry, Gratton is not the only driver of innovation leadership, as innovation depends on other factors, such as firm size, individual leadership style and organisational culture, that impact the success of innovative behaviour and activities (Pieterse et al. 2010). Additionally, the innovation and technology industry acts as a driver of innovation leadership and leaders from that industry are well-placed to influence the way innovation and innovators are motivated.

 

Sheryl Sandberg

Sheryl Sandberg, COO of Facebook, is one such innovation leader. As a leader in her position at Facebook and in the technology industry, she has influenced a large part of its expansion and advertising strategy; Advertising being the main source of income for many technology companies, including Google (CBS Interactive 2013), where Sandberg was formerly Vice President of Sales and Operations (Swisher 2008). Sandberg’s role involved convincing Facebook employees that advertising revenue was required for growth and brainstorming an advertising strategy that worked in tandem with Facebook’s overall vision and ethos (Bloomberg L.P. 2013). Once created and implemented, the ‘Social Ad’ strategy earned the company $2 billion in sales in 2010 (Bloomberg L.P. 2013). Sandberg’s overall success has shown that leadership in the innovation and technology industry is not mutually exclusive to leadership in other industries. Her success has an impact on the wider issue of women leaders in the workforce, as she evokes a similar strength of ambition in others, women in particular, to overcome obstacles encountered in the workplace and in innovation technology industries, where, in the USA, women account for only 26% of the computing occupations workforce (National Center for Women in Information Technology 2013). However, she is not the only driver of innovation in her industry, as other leaders, inventors, and the rapid evolution of the industry itself drive the innovative capabilities of all its participants.

From the evaluation of Gratton and Sandberg’s innovation leadership in their respective industries, the link between an organisation’s innovative capabilities and leadership charisma can be seen through the degree of success the two leaders have experienced and transmitted through to their followers, industries and organisations. The implication is that if a woman in leadership utilises all her competences effectively and authentically, innovation will occur, regardless of industry, company or organisational culture, and eventually, success will deem the fact that she is a woman irrelevant (Liu and Wilson 2001).

 

 

References

Bel, R. (2010), ‘Leadership and innovation: Learning from the best’, Global Business & Organizational Excellence, 29(2), 47-60, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 March 2013.

Bloomberg L.P. (2013) Why Facebook Needs Sheryl Sandberg [online] available from <http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/11_21/b4229050473695.htm#p3> [21 March 2013]

CBS Interactive (2013) Microsoft, Apple and Google: Where does the money come from? [online] available from <http://www.zdnet.com/blog/bott/microsoft-apple-and-google-where-does-the-money-come-from/4469> [21 March 2013]

Gratton, L. (2010), ‘Lynda Gratton Investigates: The Future of Work’, Business Strategy Review, 21(3), 16-23, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 March 2013.

Liu, J. And Wilson, D. (2001), ‘Developing women in a digital world’, Women in Management Review, 16(8), 405-416

National Center for Women in Information Technology (2013) By the Numbers [online] available from <http://www.ncwit.org/sites/default/files/resources/btn_02272013web.pdf> [21 March 2013]

Pieterse, A., van Knippenberg, D., Schippers, M. and Stam, D. (2010), ‘ Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behavior: The moderating role of psychological empowerment’, Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 31(4), 609-623, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 March 2013.

Swisher, K. (2008) ‘Sheryl Sandberg will become new COO of Facebook’. AllThingsD.com [online] 4 March. available from <http://allthingsd.com/20080304/sheryl-sandberg-will-become-coo-of-facebook/?mod=ATD_search> [21 March 2013]

The Financial Times Ltd (2013) ‘Davies Report reaction: Lynda Gratton’ The Financial Times [online] 24 February 2011. available from <http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/3cfb0c24-400c-11e0-811f-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2NvW6q5i6> [18 March 2013]

 

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Change and Resistance to Change

Change can be viewed as a process of growth and, in straight-forward language, resistance to change most likely represents growing pains. Change, for the purpose of this blog, refers to planned organisational change; ‘an intentional attempt to improve…the operational effectiveness of the organisation.’ (Mullins 2010: 753). Utilising Kotter’s (2007) steps to effectively manage change, the arguments for and against the statement, ‘It is all down to the personality of the individual and there is little management can do about resistance to change’ (Mullins 2010: 753) will be debated. As implementing change causes individuals to react in different ways, and often resistance will be met,  managers must be able to respond to resistance in a positive and productive way to avoid failure.

 

Arguments For

It can be argued that ‘there is little managers can do about resistance to change’ (Mullins 2010: 753) as individuals react in different ways to change and it is ultimately a choice the individual makes to adapt or resist. Kotter’s model (2007) details 8 steps to effectively manage change, aiding managers initiate the change process, however, the performance of, and response to change is largely conducted and experienced by individual front-line employees. The model describes managerial motivation, communication and planning functions, but can be argued to cede much control to employees’ individual preference regarding their reaction to change.

For example, Myron Ullman III (“Ullman”), CEO of JC Penney (2004-2012) (Businessweek.com 2013), implemented culture change in several ‘quick hits’, such as the ‘Just call me Mike’ poster campaign, emphasising first names on name tags and relaxing the dress code, all of which only became embedded in the culture after two years, when individual employees began to feel engaged, showing that resistance can make the change process slow (ICMR 2007).

 

Arguments Against

The argument against Mullins’ (2010: 753) statement posits that managers can prevent or reduce resistance to change. Kotter’s (2007) steps to effectively manage change, followed in the correct order and without making irreconcilable mistakes, may achieve successful change (Kotter 2007: 97), with resistance moderated, especially in the empowerment stage. Often employees may require individual attention to remove mental obstacles to change (Kotter 2007: 101), however overcoming resistance is possible.

In JC Penney’s case, the success of the culture change may be seen as an example of how management may implement change effectively, however, resistance still occurred where employees were sceptical or disapproving of the degree of informality implemented. The situation was rectified with time and the addition of the training programmes to develop employees. The training programme aided in increasing employee involvement, reduced turnover and attracted new recruits to JC Penney, thus diluting the overall resistance to change and allowing the slower culture change to take place (ICMR 2007).

 

Resistance to change

Lewin’s (1951) force field analysis model describes restraining forces that prevent change from occurring, and such resistance to change may occur at an organisational level or at an individual level. Resistance to change at an organisational level refers to the embedded systems within an organisation that prevent change from occurring, such as JC Penney’s office policing system which inhibited employee individuality and innovation (ICMR 2007; McShane and Travaglione 2007). At an individual level, resistance to change occurs due to employees’ ‘fear of the unknown’ and reluctance in ‘breaking routines’ (McShane and Travaglione 2007). This resistance is more pervasive and more difficult for managers to overcome as it requires the willingness and ability of individual employees to accept change.

Therefore, managers may mitigate resistance to change by supporting employees and providing a vision and plan to guide the organisation, but ultimately, the individual employee must either accept change or face being left behind in an increasingly change-oriented environment. As the HR consulting industry leader Lynda Gratton said, ‘What is inevitable is that…work will change dramatically – and those of us already in the workforce will be employed in ways we can hardly imagine.’ (Gratton 2010: 18).

 

References

Businessweek.com (2013) Myron Ullman: Executive Profile and Biography [online] available from <http://investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/people/person.asp?personId=195532&ticker=JCP> [13 March 2013]

Gratton, L. (2010), ‘Lynda Gratton Investigates: The Future of Work’, Business Strategy Review, 21(3), 16-23, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 11 March 2013.

ICMR (2007) ‘Remaking JC Penney’s Organizational Culture’ Center for Management Research, 1-20

Kotter, J.P. (2007), ‘Leading Change’, Harvard Business Review, 85(1), 96-103, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 11 March 2013.

Lewin, K. (1951), Field Theory In Social Science: Selected Theoretical Papers (Edited By Dorwin Cartwright.), Oxford England: Harpers

McShane, S. and Travaglione, T. (2007) Organisational Business: On the Pacific Rim. 2nd edn. New South Wales: McGraw-Hill

Mullins, L. J. (2010) Management & Organisational Behaviour. 9th edn. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Limited

Neal, A. (2008), ‘Preparing the organization for change’, Strategic HR Review, 7(6), 30-35, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 11 March 2013.

 

 

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Theories and Models of Leadership and Management

Research has consistently shown that diverse teams produce better results, provided they are well led. The ability to bring together people from different backgrounds, disciplines, cultures, and generations and leverage all they have to offer, therefore, is a must-have for leaders’ (Ibarra and Hansen 2011: 71)

 

According to Ibarra and Hansen (2011), leaders should foster diverse teams as they result in high performing organisations, with higher levels of creativity, and a lack of diversity may cause team and organisation failures. Diversity, in the organisational context, generally refers to differences in the workforce regarding age, ethnicity, gender (Visagie, et al. 2011), ability and personality (Hong and Page 2004; Hyun 2012). These differences require organisational or team leaders to be able to balance the competences of diverse team members in order to ‘produce better results’ (Ibarra and Hansen 2011: 71), while developing other leadership capabilities in order to increase operational performance in general.

Leadership, in this context, refers to the act of communicating vision, goal setting and maintaining and coordinating the team process (Hsieh and Drucker 1988). These leadership functions allow for diverse teams to be managed effectively and result in high performance. However, diverse teams are challenging to maintain and conflicts arise easily due to miscommunication, coordination errors and disagreements (Cronin and Weingart 2007). Leaders should be able to manage diverse teams as success can be highly lucrative and failures may greatly detriment the organisation (Causon 2008). Lynda Gratton (2010), former Human Resource Director at PA Consulting and professor at London Business School (London Business School 2013), whose research regarding the future of work identifies high-performing virtual teams and transparent and authentic leadership as areas that will affect organisations, concurs with Ibarra and Hansen’s (2011) view of diversity management and team leadership, in which globalisation, greater advancements in information and communication technology research, and the growth of the multinational corporation have caused team diversity management to become a leadership necessity (Hyun 2012). Therefore, leaders must be aware of the opportunities and challenges associated with diverse teams, so as to avoid destructive conflict and to ensure organisational success, through the management of high performing and innovative teams.

However, leaders should also be aware that the management of diverse teams should not come at the expense of organisational functionality, team cohesion and overall performance (Knouse 2006). Leaders have other functions and skills that are equally as important to organisational success as the management of diverse teams. Individual performance and overall organisational success is also important and leaders are required to communicate the vision, mission and objectives to the entire organisation and all employees, not only to teams.

A form of leadership that exemplifies the integration of team diversity management as one element of the functions of leadership is transformative leadership; ‘an ethically based leadership model that integrates a commitment to values and outcomes by optimising the long-term interests of stakeholders and society and honouring the moral duties owed by organisations to their stakeholders’ (Caldwell, et al. 2012: 176). The implication that diverse team management is merely one part of ‘the long-term interests of stakeholders and society’ (Caldwell, et al. 2012: 176) is supported by Lynda Gratton (2010), who adds the elements of relationship-building and networking as essential leadership skills of the future.

Therefore, it is posed that diverse teams may be highly lucrative, or may create a high level of conflict. Leaders should be aware of the possible pitfalls associated with team diversity, while attempting to utilise the resource effectively. However, managing diverse teams is not the only leadership function or skill necessary; communicating organisational vision, mission and objectives and relationship-building and networking are also required for leaders to be successful. The views presented by Lynda Gratton (2010) have been shown to support both arguments. Ultimately, leaders are responsible for the performance of the organisation and should find a balance between the two arguments, as failing to do so will result in great detriment to the organisation.

 

 

References

Caldwell, C., Dixon, R., Floyd, L., Chaudoin, J., Post, J. and Cheokas, G. (2012), ‘Transformative Leadership: Achieving Unparalleled Excellence’, Journal Of Business Ethics, 109(2), 175-187, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 9 March 2013.

Causon, J.J. (2008), ‘The diversity advantage’, Engineering & Technology (17509637), 3(18), 78-81, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 March 2013.

Cronin, M. and Weingart, L. (2007), ‘Representational gaps, information processing and conflict in functionally diverse teams’, Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 761-773, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 8 March 2013.

Gratton, L. (2010), ‘Lynda Gratton Investigates: The Future of Work’, Business Strategy Review, Autumn 2010, 16-23

Hong, L. and Page, S. (2004), ‘Groups of diverse problem solvers can outperform groups of high-ability problem solvers’, Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America, 101(46), 16385-16389, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 8 March 2013.

Hsieh, T. and Drucker, P. (1988), ‘Leadership: more doing than dash’, McKinsey Quarterly, 1988, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 8 March 2013.

Hyun, J. (2012), ‘Leadership principles for capitalizing on culturally diverse teams: The bamboo ceiling revisited’, Leader To Leader, 2012(64), 14-19, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 March 2013.

Ibarra, H. and Hansen, M. (2011), ‘Are You a Collaborative Leader?’, Harvard Business Review, 89(7/8), 68-74, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 March 2013.

Knouse, S.B. (2006), ‘Task Cohesion: A Mechanism for Bringing Together Diverse Teams’, International Journal Of Management, 23(3), 588-596, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 9 March 2013.

London Business School (2013) Lynda Gratton, faculty profile at London Business School [online] available from <http://www.london.edu/facultyandresearch/faculty/search.do?uid=lgratton> [8 March 2013]

Visagie, J., Linde, H and Havenga, W. (2011), ‘Leadership Competencies for Managing Diversity’, Managing Global Transitions: International Research Journal, 9(3), 225-247, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 March 2013.

 

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